In December 1998 some members of the Kashmir Study Group (KSG) in consultation with persons from the South Asia region developed the Livingston proposal, “Kashmir: A Way Forward.” This proposal recommended that portions of the former state of Jammu and Kashmir be reconstituted as a sovereign entity or entities (but without an international personality). The proposal was given to governmental officials in India and Pakistan and to diverse leadership in the Kashmir region, as well as to many opinion makers in India, Pakistan and in the Kashmir region.

The proposal elicited considerable interest as well as some healthy controversy in South Asia. Based on suggestions from a number of people in the region, we have continued to refine the underlying idea.

This report, which we hope will be viewed as another step forward in a work in progress, explores the concept of creating five self-governing entities in the Kashmir region. These comprise three entities in the area now administered by India and two in the area presently administered by Pakistan. Each entity would have its own government, constitution, and set of special relations with the other entities as well as with India and Pakistan. As in the previous Kashmir Study Group proposal, the Line of Control would remain in place until such time as India and Pakistan jointly agreed to alter it.

To explain the suggestions put forward in this document, this presentation provides a brief historical perspective of the Kashmir region and the origins of the present state of Jammu and Kashmir together with selected demographic information.

As with our earlier studies, this report was drafted and reviewed by a KSG working team. It does not necessarily represent the views of all the members of the Kashmir Study Group; nor does it represent the views of any organizations with which they are affiliated.

February 2005